Sports injuries

Sports injuries are common and vary from minor toe injuries to major complex trauma. Usually, only soft tissue is damaged, but there can also be a fracturing of bone. Soft tissue injuries include sprains, strains, and bruising. A sprain is a partial or complete rupture of a ligament, a strain is a partial tear of muscles, and a bruise is a rupture of tissue leading to a hematoma. Any soft-tissue injury can lead to tenderness, swelling, hematoma, scarring, fibrosis, and loss of function.

  • stimulating nerves located in muscles and other tissues, which leads to the release of endorphins and other neurohumoral factors (e.g. neuropeptide Y, serotonin), and changes the processing of pain in the brain and spinal cord.

  • delivering analgesia via alpha-adrenoceptor mechanisms.

  • increasing the release of adenosine, which has antinociceptive properties.

  • modulating the limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network.

  • reducing inflammation, by promoting the release of vascular and immunomodulatory factors.

  • improving muscle stiffness and joint mobility by increasing local microcirculation, which aids the dispersal of swelling.

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